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Ages And Era Of Uttar Pradesh

Stone Age Sites in UP

 

Stone Age

Sites

Major Evidences and Findings

Paleolithic Age

Belan Ghati, Prayagraj

A Sculpture of Mata Devi at Lohda Nala Belan Ghati, Quartzite Stones

Lack of information about Fire and Agriculture

Possibility of Animal rearing

Chakia, Chaundoli

Singhrauli, Sonbhadra

Mesolithic Age

Mirzapur, Sohnbhadra

Findings of Several human skeletons in orientation

Practice of agriculture, Burial of dead, and cooking food

Meja, Karchna, Phulpur in Prayagraj

Sarainahar, Pratapgarh

Neolithic Age

Belan Ghati, Prayagraj

Utensils made up of clay, Better equipment’s,

Sonbhadra

 

Copper Stone Age (Chalcolithic)

Evidences of this age has been found in Meerut and Saharanpur. 

Indus Valley Civilization (2000 – 2500 B C)

Indus Valley Civilization was an important civilization covered from Iran – Pakistan Border to Western UP.

Indus Sites

Finding and Importance

Alamgirpur, Meerut

Alamgirpur is Eastern Most Indus Site

Pottery, Copper tools, Animal Bones etc

Badagoan

Hullas (Saharanpur)

Bhatpura, Bullansehar

Vedic Era

  • Epics like Ramayana and Mahabharata are mostly based on Uttar Pradesh.
  • According to Ramayana,  Ayodhya was capital of Kosala kingdom where Lord Ram was Born. 
  • The birth of Lord Krishna took place in Mathura.
  • The Vedic Era gave way to the advent of Iron Age, beginning from 1000 BC.
  • The Gangetic plains gained in their importance during this period and became a focal centre of power as 7 of the 16 empires strived to acquire hold of this region.
  • Popular rulers of the region: Chandragupta, Ashoka, Samudragupta, ChandraGupta II, Harshavardhana

Following are the several empires that occupied the region:

Buddhism related History

  • Lord Buddha (563 BCE to 483 BCE) gave his first sermon at Sarnath near Varanasi  he initiated a revolutionary religion of Buddhism.
  • Buddhism spread its canopy to faraway places like China and Japan.
  • Kushinagara (UP) is the place where Buddha attained Nirvana.
  • Buddhism got a strong support under the rule of Ashoka and saw greatest development in the 6th BC under the reign of Gupta empire.
  • Three Jewels of Buddhisam are the Buddha, the dharma (doctrine, or teaching), and the sangha (the monastic order, or community).

Janpads and Mahajanapada Era  

The rajas who performed big sacrifices were recognised as being rajas of janapadas rather than janas. 

The word janapada literally means the land where the jana set its foot, and settles down. 

  • Mahajanapadas had a capital city, many of these were fortified.
  • 16 Majore Majormahajanpads: Kasi, Kosala, Anga, Magadha, Vajji, Malla, Chedi, Vatsa, Kuru, Panchala, Machcha, Surasena, Assaka, Avanti, Gandhara and Kamboja.
  • Out of 16, 7 were present in Modern UP: Malla, Chedi, Vatsa, Kuru, Panchala, Kasi, Kosala
  • Marya Kingdom and Gupta Kingdom were prominent rular of the area. 
  • Kannauj empire was one of the most prominent rulers of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab.
  • The era is considered as revival of Hinduism.
  • It rose to power after the defeat of Guptas at the hands of Huns. 
  • Harshavardhana helped the empire expand its reach to the regions of Punjab in the north, Gujarat in the west, Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south.
  • After Harshavardhana's decline of Kannauj empire happened as Gurjara-Pratiharas took over
  • Rashtrakutas also invaded the Kannauj kingdom from 8th to the 10th century.

Delhi Sultanate Era

Delhi Sultanate ruled the present-day U.P. for almost 300 years since 1200 AD.

Following are the Delhi Sultanate various dynasties. 

 

Dynasty

Era

Founder

Important Kings

Mamluk

1206 - 1290

                Qutb ud-Din Aibak

Balban, Iltutmish

Khilji

1290 - 1320

Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji

Alauddin Khalji

Tughlaq

1320 - 1414

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq

Muhammad bin Tughluq

Sayyad

1414 - 1451

Sayyid Khizr Khan

 

Lodhi

1451 - 1526

Bahlul Lodi

Ibhrahim Lodi

Mughal Empire 

  • Mughal Kingdom was established by Babur who defeated Ibrahim Lodi in 1526 in First War of Panipat. 
  • Mughals were of central Asian Turk descent.
  • Mughal King Humayan was defeated by Sher Shah Suri of Suri dynasty, and thus the control of Uttar Pradesh was renounced to the Suri dynasty.
  • Sher Shah Suri and Islam Shah Suri ruled from Gwalior as their capital.
  • The death of Islam Shah Suri paved way for Hemu, who was known as Hemchandra Vikramaditya, to rule over Delhi.
  • In the second battle of Panipat, most prominent king of Mughal dynasty-Akbar seized power from Hemu and made Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra his capital.
  • Fall of the Mughal empire, led to the rules of Marathas and Rohillas as well.
  • Their mutual rivalry that ended with the second Anglo-Indian war as Marathas lost most of their reign to the British Empire including Uttar Pradesh.

British Rule

  • A series of battles gave the British East India Company control over the UP state's territories.[
  • Ajmer and Jaipur kingdoms were also included in this northern territory, which was named the "North-Western Provinces”. 
  • 1857 saw the first war of Independence or ‘Sepoy Mutiny’. Meerut was the fulcrum of this rebellion, was started by Mangal Pandey. Rani Laxmibai, of Jhanshi was a prominent leader in the war of Independence. 
  • After the revolution the company rule ended and British Crown took direct power. 
  • A revision division of territories took place. 
  • The kingdom of Oudh wrested earlier was incorporated in the NWP of Agra, thus it was again renamed as United Provinces of Agra and Oudh in 1902.
  • In 1902 the capital was shifted from Allahabad to Lucknow and in 1938 the name was shortened as United Provinces and ultimately in 1950 it was given its present name-'Uttar Pradesh'.

Important Events (UP) in War of Independence

Year

Spoy Mutiny

1857

First Congress Session in UP

(4th in India) in Allahabad.

1888

Lucknow Pact (Between Congress and Muslim League)

1916

Non Cooperation

1921

Chauri Chaura (Gorakhpur)

1922

Kakori conspiracy

1925

Civil Disobedience

1931

All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) formation in Lucknow session

1936

Quit India

1942

Baghi Ballia under Chintu Pandey

1942

India Independence

1947

Post-Independence History

It has remained a politically active state.

It is most populous state and 4th largest state in India. 

Post-independence, after a two decade long rule of Indian National Congress came to an end Bhartiya Janta Dal bagged the governance of U.P. under the leadership of Ram Manohar Lohiya.

The BKD (Bhartiya Kranti Dal) government came down after the imposition of president rule in 1969.

After emergence 1975, INC lost its support base in Uttar Pradesh and Janata Party came in the rule for the first time in 1977.

Congress couldn’t form government after 1888.

BJP came into power in 1991 and formed subsequent governments independently and in coalition.

After that power mostly remained with Samaj Wadi Party led by Mulayam Singh and Bahujan Samaj Party led by Mayawati.

BJP won a massive mandate in 2017. Yogi Adityanath is the current of UP.

Uttarakhand separated from Uttar Pradesh on November 9th 2000.